2017
DOI: 10.28991/ijse-01112 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Agriculture is the main activity carried out in Cameroon and pesticide use is believed to be a common rule for its success. Most of the farms are situated close to water bodies, thus constituting a potential risk to non-target aquatic organisms. Declines of amphibian populations have been a worldwide issue of concern for the scientific community during the last several decades. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of an insecticide used by local farmers in Buea on amphibians. Parastar 40WP® which is… Show more

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“…Lambda-cyhalothrin is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, terrestrial arthropods (including honeybees) but slightly to non-toxic to birds [ 33 , 35 ]. Toxicity to reptiles and amphibians is likely high and overlooked [ 36 , 37 ]. Lambda-cyhalothrin has a low vapour pressure, low solubility in water and high soil adsorption coefficient [ 35 ].…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
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“…Lambda-cyhalothrin is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, terrestrial arthropods (including honeybees) but slightly to non-toxic to birds [ 33 , 35 ]. Toxicity to reptiles and amphibians is likely high and overlooked [ 36 , 37 ]. Lambda-cyhalothrin has a low vapour pressure, low solubility in water and high soil adsorption coefficient [ 35 ].…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
“…Our finding of no differences in the time spent swimming, distance larvae swam, or speed when naïve larvae were exposed to 0, 10, 100, or 500 ppb, is also in contrast to the results of other studies. When naïve larvae were introduced to Parastar 40WP (imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, and 500 ppb, larvae reacted immediately by increasing their swimming rates as the concentration increased (Kenko Nkontcheu et al 2017). It is likely that imidacloprid alone may not be as toxic and may not induce the same behavioral changes compared with the Parastar 40WP, a mixture of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Lower activity levels and reaction to stimuli may result in higher mortality from predation (Denoël et al 2013). Similarly, higher activity due to exposure could be associated with higher stress levels (Kenko Nkontcheu et al 2017), and hyperactive larvae could also have higher mortality due to predation (Bell 2004).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Damage cell and DNA damage 34 and increased frequency of MNs 38 were also reported to Boana pulchella (denominated Hypsiboas pulchellus in the studies) after 96 h exposure to imidacloprid-based insecticide at concentrations of 25 mg L −1 and 15 mg L −1 , respectively. While an insecticide based on imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin caused 100% morality of Amietophrynus regularis at doses from 0.05 mg L −1 39 Low levels (e.g., environmental levels 40 42 ) have seldom been studied in amphibians. A recent study found that the application of a halfway stimulus in Rana sylvatica exposed to low doses of imidacloprid (10 µg L −1 ) demonstrated that the larvae swam shorter distances and spent less time swimming 43 , suggesting that imidacloprid exposure may delay the reaction, potentially increasing the risk of predation 43 .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning