“…Sometimes the main problem is the long time it takes to receive feedback once the application has been made and, above all, the lack of transparency of authorities' discretionary practices in granting the citizenship rights (Triandafyllidou 2003 Rosenblum (2005), Joppke (1998), Ruhs (2008) and Schuster (2005): their research stresses that immigration policies produce intended consequences like the status of migrants and the categories according to which they are classified, but also emphasizing the weaknesses of some policy decisions and their tendency to produce unexpected and unintended consequences.…”
Section: This Is the Only Country Where You Have To Wait For 10 Yearsmentioning
This paper analyzes the impact of Italian immigration policies on migrants' lives. Policies and changes in policies can affect migrants' capabilities to stabilize themselves in the host country, in terms of legal residence and secure labor conditions, as well as their chances of becoming part of the host society. We argue that, together with border controls, these are crucial ways through which immigration policies may have the postulated effects on the lives of migrants. We use data from 59 in-depth interviews conducted with first-generation Moroccan and Egyptian migrants living in two Italian cities, Turin and Rome, in the period 2011-2013. The results show that Italian immigration policies do not successfully control migration inflow, but effectively hinder the stability of migrants' legal status and the status transition from temporary residence to permanent residence and subsequent Italian citizenship. In this way, Italian immigration policies largely affect migrants' capabilities to be part of the host country; this gets in the way of integration, social cohesion and future migration projects.KEY WORDS -policy effectiveness, migrant status, qualitative research 2
“…6 This demand for entry meets with supply restrictions set by nations through immigration quotas. Ruhs (2008) reviewed the considerations inherent in immigration policy with particular application to the UK's framework. His work noted that economics provides more powerful lessons for the selection of migrants, due to factors reviewed next, than for levels of immigration or the rights conferred to migrants.…”
This paper surveys recent empirical studies on the economic impacts of immigration. The survey …rst examines the magnitude of immigration as an economic phenomenon in various host countries. The second part deals with the assimilation of immigrant workers into host-country labor markets and concomitant e¤ects for natives. The paper then turns to immigration's impact for the public …nances of host countries. The …nal section considers emerging topics in the study of immigration. The survey particularly emphasizes the recent experiences of Northern Europe and Scandinavia and relevant lessons from traditional destination countries like the US.JEL Classi…cation: H53, J23, J31, J61, J68.
“…Mobile individuals with high-income earning capacity are, all else equal, likely to choose jurisdictions with lower tax obligations. This is a hitherto little researched topic in the recent literature on the formation of policies to target more highly skilled immigrants (see Ruhs 2008 for example).…”
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Immigration is a controversial topic in Australia and some of its Asian neighbours. Given the potential impact on native welfare, such as effects on relative wages and unemployment, there has been political mobilisation on the immigration question. The presence of a redistributive welfare state in all major immigrant host countries creates yet another margin on which immigration affects native welfare. The focus of the paper is whether a large intake of immigrants leads to a reduction in welfare state effort. It is often argued that steady increases in immigration lead to public pressure for stricter immigration controls or for less generous publicly funded social expenditures. In terms of immigrants with similar employability and claims on the public purse to natives, it is hypothesised that the impact on welfare spending is neutral. These ideas are tested using detailed data for migration to developed countries.
“…Cross-country variation and the constant change of policies over time make most empirical research on this issue difficult to generalize (Ruhs 2008). We circumvent this issue by using experimental economic methods.…”
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Setting the Bar -An Experimental Investigation of Immigration RequirementsMenusch Khadjavi*, Jasper D. Tjaden Abstract: Many Western countries face the challenge of reconciling future labor demand with growing public opposition to immigration. The dynamics and underlying processes of setting immigration requirements remain unclear as research so far mainly focuses on context-specific empirical studies. We use a public good game experiment with endogenous groups to investigate how different levels of perceived migrant potential and public debate shape immigration requirements. We employ the minimal group paradigm and immigration requirements are set by in-group voting. Our results suggest that fairness and efficiency of immigration requirements may best be described by the relationship between average population indicators and required contributions of immigrants. Public debate appears to foster fair and efficient requirements if perceived migrant potential is high.
“…As discussed in Ruhs (2008), if the policy objectives are to maximise the economic benefits and minimise adverse impacts on the lowest paid among existing residents, high incomecountries have economic incentives to admit low-skilled migrants on a temporary rather than permanent basis and restrict their employment to carefully selected sectors and/or occupations of the host economy's labour market. These are sectors and/or occupations where it is genuinely difficult or impossible to address staff shortages by raising wages and/or alternative mechanisms such as adopting less labour intensive production methods in the short run; and/or where there is evidence that the costs of lower wages (or lower wage growth) that some resident workers incur because of immigration are outweighed by the benefits the resident population derives from the lower prices of commodities and services that are produced/provided by migrants.…”
This paper explores the potential impacts of the rights of migrant workers ("migrant rights") on the human development of actual and potential migrants, their families, and other people in migrants' countries of origin. A key feature of the paper is its consideration of how migrant rights affect both the capability to move and work in higher income countries (i.e. the access of workers in low-income countries to labour markets of higher-income countries) and capabilities while living and working abroad. The paper suggests that there may be a trade-off between the number and some of the rights of low-skilled migrants admitted to high-income countries and explores the implications for human development.
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