volume 75, issue 3, P353-368 1988
DOI: 10.1002/j.1537-2197.1988.tb13450.x
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Abstract: Ecological groups were identified from 34 North American species of pine using multivariate analysis of 18 ecological traits. Five adaptive modes are described: 1) fire‐resistant species that are large, thick‐barked, and have large cones and long needles; 2) tall, fast‐growing mesophytic species with moderately high shade tolerance; 3) stress‐tolerant species with animal‐dispersed seeds, occurring mainly on cold or dry sites where fire is infrequent; 4) fire‐resilient species that are precocious reproducers w…

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