Biochemical Pharmacology volume 81, issue 10, P1248-1254 2011 DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.03.001 View full text
Nadine Frölich, Christian Dees, Christian Paetz, Xuan Ren, Martin J. Lohse, Viacheslav O. Nikolaev, Meinhart H. Zenk

Abstract: Morphine and several other opioids are important drugs for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Opioid-induced analgesia is predominantly mediated by the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). When administered to humans, complex metabolic pathways lead to generation of many metabolites, nine of which may be considered major metabolites. While the properties of the two main compounds, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide, are well described, the activity of other morphine metabolites is largely unknown. Her…

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