Abstract:The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has proved to be effective in patients at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Because of the development of more effective lead- and defibrillator systems the surgical implantation modes have changed from extensive operative interventions (sternotomy, lateral thoracotomy) to less traumatical (subxiphoidal/subcostal approach) and less invasive (transvenous) techniques. Procedures with less operative damage may be offered to patients with reduced cardiac function.… Show more
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