Recently, cyber security becomes a serious problem for not only OA (Office Automation) systems but also PA (Process Automation) and FA (Factory Automation) systems. Even the controllers, which are not connected to Internet directly, have been attacked with malwares, such as Stuxnet and Quantum. When control system fails, it may lead to serious accidents such as explosion or leakage of poisonous and deleterious substances. For process control, cyber-attack is one of the causes to threaten safety. The authors o…
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