The rapid urbanisation is exerting increasing pressure on the continent's natural environment which is negatively affecting its sustainability. A rapidly urbanising Africa is vigorously degrading the environmental resources especially those in urban areas. There is also a growing fear that African governments may become locked into 'a grow dirty now, clean up later' development path that may be irreparable, expensive, and wasteful as well as reduce the welfare of especially vulnerable groups. This trajectory has negative connotation on environmental rights and specially the human rights of vulnerable individuals and communities to health, food, water and housing. However, the protection of these environmental assets can upsurge the efficiency and livability of the rapidly urbanising communities, increase tourism opportunities as well as augment resilience to the impacts of global climatic variations. Adopting a doctrinal methodology and the human rights-based approach, this article explores the intersection between human rights and environmental protection in the context of rapid urbanisation on the African continent. This paper further examines whether and to what extent a regional human rights approach to environmental protection can protect environmental assets in the context of urbanization at the national level in Africa. It relies on primary sources and secondary information. The article discusses the nexus between human rights and environment protection in the African context and addresses key issue of human rights and environmental conservation in the context of urbanisation.