2014
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114649 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glu… Show more

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“…Moreover, since a single bout of eccentric exercise may induce microscopic changes indicative of muscle injury noticeable for up to 9 days in rats [5], it is likely that full expression of the antihyperalgesic effect of RBE would occur after full recovery from the first bout of eccentric exercise. Growing evidence shows that several types of muscle injury, including eccentric exercise, trigger a time-dependent change in the phenotype of local macrophages [1,45,54], from classically activated (pro-inflammatory) macrophages (M1), to alternatively activated macrophages (M2), which display anti-inflammatory features and are necessary for myogenesis and complete tissue repair/regeneration at resolution stages [1,45,54]. Importantly, M2 macrophages present in skeletal muscle produce and release IL-10 [16,51], which can in turn act on a number of different cell types involved in local responses to muscle injury [51].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…Moreover, since a single bout of eccentric exercise may induce microscopic changes indicative of muscle injury noticeable for up to 9 days in rats [5], it is likely that full expression of the antihyperalgesic effect of RBE would occur after full recovery from the first bout of eccentric exercise. Growing evidence shows that several types of muscle injury, including eccentric exercise, trigger a time-dependent change in the phenotype of local macrophages [1,45,54], from classically activated (pro-inflammatory) macrophages (M1), to alternatively activated macrophages (M2), which display anti-inflammatory features and are necessary for myogenesis and complete tissue repair/regeneration at resolution stages [1,45,54]. Importantly, M2 macrophages present in skeletal muscle produce and release IL-10 [16,51], which can in turn act on a number of different cell types involved in local responses to muscle injury [51].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…In most cases, muscle inflammation is characterized by elevated activity of the NF-B pathway within muscle extracts, although it is not possible to ascribe the response to a particular cell type within the muscle tissue. Within 2-24 h of such exercise programs, the macrophage number within skeletal muscle tissue increases and may stay elevated for over 1 wk (16,27,46). Although skeletal muscle normally contains resident macrophages, it is likely that exercise causes a gain in macrophage precursors (monocytes).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Several studies have shown an exercise-induced activation of NF-B pathway in skeletal muscle (39,41,43,46), but there are also a few opposing reports reporting suppression of this pathway (38). Exercise can increase NF-B p65 binding to the promoter of CCL2 in skeletal muscle and an NF-B inhibitor quenched exercise-induced CCL2 expression (39,43).…”
Section: E167 Contracting Myotubes Attract Monocytesmentioning
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“…These pretreated slides were blocked for 15 min at room temperature with 5% BSA and then incubated at 4 °C overnight with primary antibodies: antibodies against rat CD68 (dilution 1:50) (abcam, Cambridge, UK) and rabbit CD163 (dilution 1:50) (AbD Serotec, Kidlington, UK). Briefly, specific antibody was purchased to perform IHC staining by using horseradish peroxidase‐conjugated avidin biotin complex (ABC) from the Vectastain Elite ABC Kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA) and DAB chromogen (Vector Laboratories) . The sections will be counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted.…”
Section: Methodsmentioning