2005
DOI: 10.1191/0961203305lu2053oa
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Cytokine expression in lupus kidneys

Abstract: Although far from complete, the picture of cytokines present in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) glomerulonephritis is already complex. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF, IL-6, IL-1, and IL-18 are upregulated, as are both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, with different implications. In many instances, the local effects may be different from the systemic immunoregulatory ones. For some proinflammatory cytokines, and TNF in particular, the local proinflammatory ones may be more relevant to the disease. This may hel… Show more

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Cited by 99 publications
(82 citation statements)
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References 56 publications
(50 reference statements)
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“…The expression of some cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were shown to be markedly elevated in the patients with lupus nephritis [32]. We did not find, however, any significant difference in the serum level of any of the cytokines between the patients with and without nephritis.…”
Section: Discussioncontrasting
confidence: 43%
“…The expression of some cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were shown to be markedly elevated in the patients with lupus nephritis [32]. We did not find, however, any significant difference in the serum level of any of the cytokines between the patients with and without nephritis.…”
Section: Discussioncontrasting
confidence: 43%
“…26 Mesangial cells isolated from MRL/lpr mice exhibit increased sensitivity when immune-stimulated by inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa), IL-1b, interferon-c (IFN-c) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). [27][28][29] In SLE, increased sensitivity to immune stimulation leads to higher expression of TNF-a, IL-6, IL-12 and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. [29][30][31] Lupus mice excrete elevated levels of protein in their urine and possess increased serum IgG antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) or anti-nuclear antibodies.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[27][28][29] In SLE, increased sensitivity to immune stimulation leads to higher expression of TNF-a, IL-6, IL-12 and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. [29][30][31] Lupus mice excrete elevated levels of protein in their urine and possess increased serum IgG antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) or anti-nuclear antibodies. [32][33][34][35][36][37] Renal histological markers of glomerular lesions and glomerular deposition of IgG and C3 can also indicate disease.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…A role of IL-6 for different inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's Disease has been established. Increased levels of IL-6 and cytokines such as TNF-␣, IL-1, and IL-18 have been observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (9,10). SLE is characterized by the presence of autoimmune antibodies and immune complexes, which form deposits in various tissues and can cause severe tissue damage (11).…”
Section: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Sle) Is a Complex Autoimmune Dmentioning
confidence: 99%