volume 14, issue 3, P310-323 1977
DOI: 10.1139/t77-037
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Abstract: The 27–45 m high bluffs along the north shore of Lake Erie in Ontario are retreating inland at a 150 year average rate of 0.5 to 3.0 m/year. The retreat mechanisms and rates are cyclic and consist of complex interrelationships of toe erosion by wave attack, cliff steepening, sheet sloughing, and landsliding associated with softening in response to changes in effective stress. Four cyclic failure types are presented.1. Slowly retreating (0.6 m/year) unvegetated cliff fronts of 27 m height and nearly constant p…

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