2015 **Abstract:** transfer modes are minimized or eliminated as in Dewar flasks and cryogenic storage systems. In this review, we discuss the common and not-so-common methods for treating radiation heat transfer in participating (absorbing/emitting and scattering) media, and how these methods are coupled with the overall energy equation for treating thermal transfer problems.Because radiation is almost inevitably coupled with other heat transfer modes, an overall thermal analysis requires solution of the energy equation, which …

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“…Equation () states the RTE equation and its dependences.$$\frac{1}{c}\frac{\mathrm{d}{I}_{\mathrm{normal\lambda}}\left(\mathrm{normalS}\right)}{\mathrm{d}t}+\frac{\mathrm{d}{I}_{\mathrm{normal\lambda}}\left(\mathrm{normalS}\right)}{\mathrm{d}S}={j}_{\mathrm{normal\lambda}}\u2010{\mathrm{normal\beta}}_{\text{ext}}{I}_{\mathrm{normal\lambda}}\left(S\right)+\frac{1}{4\mathrm{\pi}}\underset{\mathrm{normal\Omega}}{false\int}{\mathrm{\beta}}_{\text{scat}}\mathrm{normal\phi}\mathrm{normald}\mathrm{normal\Omega}$$ where, I λ is the monochromatic radiation intensity, d t and d s are the time and space derivatives, respectively, c is the speed of light, j λ is the emission function, β ext is the extinction coefficient, β scat is the scattering coefficient, φ is the scattering phase function and Ω is the solid angle. Numerous approaches have been proposed to solve the RTE and Howell et al 42,43 ranked the most used methods, listing their advantages and drawbacks. Using the diffusive approach developed by Clark, 44 the RTE can be combined with the heat transfer partial differential equations (PDE) resulting in the calculation of k rad .…”

confidence: 99%

“…This means that the RTE is solved using the solution of the previous time step (lagged in time). Then, the divergence of the radiative heat field is used as a source term for the energy equation which is solved in the PIMPLE (PISO) algorithm [24].…”

confidence: 99%

“…This means that the RTE is solved using the solution of the previous time step (lagged in time). Then, the divergence of the radiative heat field is used as a source term for the energy equation which is solved in the PIMPLE (PISO) algorithm [25].…”

confidence: 99%