2019
DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slz134 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Radio, X-ray and infrared observations of the inner few hundred pc of the Galactic center have highlighted two characteristics to the ISM. The cosmic ray ionization rate derived from molecular ions such as H + 3 , is at least two to three orders of magnitudes higher than in the Galactic disk. The other is bipolar X-ray and radio emission away from the Galactic plane. These features are consistent with a scenario in which high cosmic ray pressure drives large-scale winds away from the Galactic plane. The intera… Show more

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“…In the latter case, the observed hot plasma might trace only a small fraction of the energy of the more powerful outflow which would be the driver of the observed phenomenology. Several candidates, including cosmic rays (Breitschwerdt et al 1991;Yusef-Zadeh et al 2019), Alfven or MHD waves (Sofue 2020a,b), fast-and-cold outflow resulting after rapid adiabatic expansion (Chevalier & Clegg 1985;Heckman et al 1990;Suchkov et al 1994;Krumholz et al 2017), very hot plasma, among others have been proposed. We stress that the presence of a fast-and-cold outflow is often invoked in starburst galaxies, where the initially hot plasma is rapidly adiabatically expanding, therefore transforming into a fast and cold flow (Heckman et al 1990;Suchkov et al 1994;Krumholz et al 2017).…”
Section: Emerging Picturementioning
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“…In the latter case, the observed hot plasma might trace only a small fraction of the energy of the more powerful outflow which would be the driver of the observed phenomenology. Several candidates, including cosmic rays (Breitschwerdt et al 1991;Yusef-Zadeh et al 2019), Alfven or MHD waves (Sofue 2020a,b), fast-and-cold outflow resulting after rapid adiabatic expansion (Chevalier & Clegg 1985;Heckman et al 1990;Suchkov et al 1994;Krumholz et al 2017), very hot plasma, among others have been proposed. We stress that the presence of a fast-and-cold outflow is often invoked in starburst galaxies, where the initially hot plasma is rapidly adiabatically expanding, therefore transforming into a fast and cold flow (Heckman et al 1990;Suchkov et al 1994;Krumholz et al 2017).…”
Section: Emerging Picturementioning
“…In addition to non-thermal photons, evidence for CRs at the GC comes from observations that could be explained by pressure from CR-driven winds (Heywood et al 2019;Nakashima et al 2019;Ponti et al 2019;Yusef-Zadeh & Wardle 2019;Ponti et al 2021). Similar winds could be responsible for the Fermi Bubbles, and could explain the observed blue-shifted atomic hydrogen lines from the CMZ (Oka et al 2019) and high-velocity clouds moving away from the disk (McClure-Griffiths et al 2013).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Nevertheless both physical agents have been implicated in the initiation of mass outflows -thought to be driven by a combination of cosmic ray and thermal gas pressure (cf. Everett et al 2008;Yusef-Zadeh & Wardle 2019) -that originate in the GC. These range in size from the ∼15 pc radio and X-ray lobes (Morris et al 2003;Zhao et al 2016) through to the order of magnitude larger bipolar radio bubbles and X-ray chimney (Heywood et al 2019;Ponti et al 2019, respectively), and ultimately the ∼50 kpc Fermi bubbles (Su et al 2010).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning