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“…In both genders a characteristic descending order of size was demonstrated, RA being thickest, then IO, EO, and TA. Although not specifically identified, ultrasound measurements from previous studies showed the same order of thickness of the lateral muscles and, despite variation in scanning protocols, our mean values agree well with those studies, 4,5,16,18,19,27 varying by 0.3 cm for IO and TA and by 0.4 cm for EO. Variations of 0.1-0.2 cm could be due to measurement error.…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
“…18,27 In the present study, position 1 mainly represented the upper fibers of all three muscles and the anterior fibers of the obliques, whereas position 2 represented the lower fibers of the three muscles and lateral fibers of the obliques. Therefore, functionally different regions of the muscle were represented.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…In addition, some researchers have tried to quantify the trunk musculature using CT or MRI (e.g., McGill et al 1996). In respect of the age and gender of subjects, however, the data comparable to the present results are limited to those reported by Ishida et al (1994) on Japanese young women.…”
Section: Discussioncontrasting
“…McGill et al 18) stated that the moment arm lengths of the erector spinae and rectus abdominis measured while their subjects stood were 13% and 30% longer, respectively, than while they were supine. It may be better to apply their findings when using our equations.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning