A finite element analysis of thermoforming based on the thin membrane approximation is presented. Triangular elements with adaptive mesh refinement are used to describe deformed shapes in complex geometries. Viscoelastic effects are assumed to be negligible, and Ogden's model is used to express the material response. The results are in good agreement with previous simulations and some experimental data available in the literature. The combination of adaptive mesh refinement near corners and edges, inclusion o…
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