PIK3CA mutation represents a clinical subset of diverse carcinomas. We explored the status of PIK3CA mutation and evaluated its genetic variability, treatment, and prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 810 patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma were recruited between 2008 and 2013. The status of PIK3CA mutation and other three genes, that is, EGFR mutation, KRAS mutation and ALK fusion were examined by reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). Survival curves were plotted with the Kaplan–Meier method and log‐rank for comparison. Cox proportional hazard model was performed for multivariate analysis. Among the 810 patients, 23 cases of PIK3CA mutation were identified with a frequency of 2.8%. There were 14 men and 9 women with a median age of 61 years. Seventeen tumors revealed concurrent gene abnormalities of EGFR mutation (n = 12), KRAS mutation (n = 3), and ALK fusion (n = 2). Seven patients with EGFR & PIK3CA mutations recurred and administrated of EGFR‐TKIs yielded a median progression free‐survival of 6.0 months. Among four eviromous‐treated patients, stable disease was observed in three patients with a median Progression‐free survival (PFS) of 3.5 months. Patients with and without PIK3CA mutation had different overall survivals (32.2 vs. 49.6 months, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed that PIK3CA mutation was an independent predictor of poor overall survival (HR = 2.37, P = 0.017). The frequency of PIK3CA mutation was around 2.8% in the Chinese patients of lung adenocarcinoma. PIK3CA mutation was associated with reduced PFS of EGFR‐TKIs treatment and shorter overall survival.