Corydoras is a speciose catfish genus from South America with widely investigated phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The complete mitogenomes of C. aeneus and C. paleatus were sequenced, assembled, and annotated using next-generation sequencing. The genome arrangements, gene contents, genome structures, base compositions, evolutionary features, codon usage, and tRNA structures of the two mitogenomes were compared and analyzed with nine published mitogenomes of Corydoras. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using concatenated nucleotide sequences with 13 protein-coding genes and two rRNAs with 44 mitogenomes of Siluriformes. These results provide information on the mitogenomes of eleven Corydoras species and evolutionary relationships within the suborder Loricarioidei, which may be applicable for further phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on Siluriformes and Loricarioidei.