Selective laser melting (SLM) is a layer by layer process of melting and solidifying of metal powders. The surface quality of the previous layer directly affects the uniformity of the next layer. If the surface roughness value of the previous layer is large, there is the possibility of not being able to complete the layering process such that the entire process has to be abandoned. At least, it may result in long term durability problem and the inhomogeneity, may even make the processed structure not be able to be predicted. In the present study, the ability of a fiber laser to in-situ polish the rough surfaces of four typical additive-manufactured alloys, namely, Ti6Al4V, AlSi10Mg, 316L and IN718 was demonstrated. The results revealed that the surface roughness of the as-received alloys could be reduced to about 3 μm through the application of the laser-polishing process, and the initial surfaces had roughness values of 8.80–16.64 μm. Meanwhile, for a given energy density, a higher laser power produced a laser-polishing effect that was often more obvious, with the surface roughness decreasing with an increase in the laser power. Further, the polishing strategy will be optimized by simulation in our following study.