Transvaginal sonography (TVS) and office hysteroscopy are considered essential diagnostic tool for the gynecologic everyday practice. Through the years equipment developments in both techniques along with cumulative experience gained by the gynecologists result in a disunity among clinicians in choosing optimal diagnostic approach with regards to endometrial pathology.
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of TVS versus office hysteroscopy (OHSC) in detecting endometrial pathology. Results were compared to available scientific evidence available among similar published studies.
Comparative Retrospective study performed at the Endoscopic Unit, Department of Gynecology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece. A total of 2675 cases were collected for this study from January 1997 until August 2019. All cases recruited underwent a TVS followed by office hysteroscopy (OHSC) for various indications according to the local protocol. Endometrial samples from all cases were obtained and histology confirmed the diagnosis. Sonographic and hysteroscopic results were correlated with histologic reports to assess the diagnostic accuracy of both techniques.
In a total of 2675 cases recruited for this study, 23.2% were postmenopausal while the majority (76.7%) was of reproductive age. The commonest indication for hysteroscopy was abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) accounting for 29.7% of the cases. Overall, TVS demonstrated diagnostic accuracy of 84.7%% in detecting endometrial pathology, compared to 97.3% of OHSC. Sensitivity, specificity, positive prognostic value (PPV) and negative prognostic value (NPV) of TVS detecting endometrial pathology were 84.0, 86.8, 95.3 and 63.0%, respectively. The corresponding values for hysteroscopy were 98.9, 95.1, 98.4 and 93.9%, respectively. Diagnostic value of both techniques was estimated in 6 (six) additional subgroups: total sample with AUB, women of reproductive age, women of reproductive age with AUB, women of reproductive age with infertility issues, postmenopausal women and postmenopausal women suffering from postmenopausal bleeding (PMB). All values were calculated with regards to histologic findings as gold standard technique. All results were correlated with scientific evidence collected from the international literature.
Office hysteroscopy is a more reliable tool in detecting endometrial pathologies compared to TVS regardless of reproductive status or clinical presentation. TVS is likely to orientate and guide specialists on what to expect prior to an hysteroscopic intervention.