J. Clin. Lab. Anal. volume 28, issue 5, P353-363 2014 DOI: 10.1002/jcla.21693 View full text
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Yang Xia, Lee-Yang Wong, Brandon C. Bunker, John T. Bernert

Abstract: This study confirms significant relationships between NNAL concentrations and both urine creatinine and specific gravity. We conclude that creatinine is the more influential and preferred variable to account for urine dilution in tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure assessment.