ACADEMIC criminology by and large has offered precious little aid or comfort to the probation officer. According to subcultural theories, strongly influential for nearly fifty years, criminal or anti-social attitudes are rooted deeply in the value-system of certain neighbourhoods or certain age-groups. Labelling and symbolic interaction theories, which enjoyed a briefer vogue in the late 1960s and early 1970s, taught that an individual's or an area's &dquo;badness&dquo; lay primarily in the willingness of oth…
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