2006
DOI: 10.1001/.411
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Cocoa Intake, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Zutphen Elderly Study

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Cited by 197 publications
(223 citation statements)
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“…Based on epidemiological studies, populations that consume foods and drinks rich in polyphenols have a lower incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, and chronic heart failure (Stoclet et al, 2004;Goggs et al, 2005;Buijsse et al, 2006;McCullough et al, 2006). The beneficial effects of polyphenols in cardiovascular disease have been shown to involve inhibition of key enzymes and transcription factors that are known to promote inflammation (Bode and Zigang, 2003;Yoon and Baek, 2005).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Based on epidemiological studies, populations that consume foods and drinks rich in polyphenols have a lower incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, and chronic heart failure (Stoclet et al, 2004;Goggs et al, 2005;Buijsse et al, 2006;McCullough et al, 2006). The beneficial effects of polyphenols in cardiovascular disease have been shown to involve inhibition of key enzymes and transcription factors that are known to promote inflammation (Bode and Zigang, 2003;Yoon and Baek, 2005).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Among them, cocoa beans have always been of particular interest, as they are one of the richest polyphenol sources. In this context, several epidemiological studies suggest a strong correlation between daily cocoa intake and better cardiovascular outcome in different population settings (19)(20)(21). Clinical interventional studies demonstrated a positive effect of flavanol-rich cocoa or chocolate intake on BP reduction and improvement in microvascular and macrovascular function (116,117).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Comparing the groups with higher and lower chocolate intake, a reduction of 3.7 mmHg in systolic BP (SBP; 95% CI, −7.1 to −0.3 mmHg; p = 0.03) and a reduction of 2.1 mmHg in diastolic BP (DBP; 95% CI, −4.0 to −0.2 mmHg; p = 0.03) were observed. Higher chocolate intake was associated to significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality (adjusted relative risk 0.50, 95% CI, 0.32-0.78; p = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (adjusted relative risk 0.53, 95% CI, 0.39-0.72; p < 0.001) (20). In the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, chocolate intake related to a reduced cardiovascular mortality after acute myocardial infarction (21).…”
Section: Epidemiological Evidencementioning
confidence: 98%
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“…For instance, epidemiological studies revealed that fruits, vegetables, tea, and cocoa are rich natural sources of flavonoids and their consumption could probably reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Apart from these, there are several sources of flavonoids and antioxidants that could prove beneficial for human health.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%