2004
DOI: 10.1590/s0100-879x2004000200013
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Abstract: Our aim was to compare the clinical features of panic disorder (PD) patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods of inducing panic attacks. Eighty-five PD patients were submitted to both a hyperventilation challenge test and a breath-holding test. They were asked to hyperventilate (30 breaths/min) for 4 min and a week later to hold their breath for as long as possible, four times with a 2-min interval. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the tests. We selected the patients who resp… Show more

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Cited by 21 publications
(20 citation statements)
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References 26 publications
(21 reference statements)
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“…Similar group differences were found in three studies using hyperventilation and breath-holding tasks. [21][22][23] Notably, all six of these studies were conducted in the same laboratory and did not measure physiological responding. Additionally, several studies used small sample sizes or failed to report on sample composition (e.g., presence vs. absence of agoraphobia), potentially limiting their generalizability.…”
Section: Respiratory Subtypementioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Similar group differences were found in three studies using hyperventilation and breath-holding tasks. [21][22][23] Notably, all six of these studies were conducted in the same laboratory and did not measure physiological responding. Additionally, several studies used small sample sizes or failed to report on sample composition (e.g., presence vs. absence of agoraphobia), potentially limiting their generalizability.…”
Section: Respiratory Subtypementioning
confidence: 99%
“…Several studies have found that the respiratory subtype is associated with greater familial history of panic disorder, although findings are limited to proband self report. Numerous studies indicate that patients meeting criteria for the respiratory subtype [7,8,13] or exhibiting strong respiratory symptoms during physiological challenge [9,[21][22][23][24][25][26] report a greater familial history of panic disorder, suggestive of greater familial loading for the respiratory than nonrespiratory subtype. In two studies, respiratory subtype patients reported greater familial history of any mental disorder.…”
Section: Respiratory Subtypementioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Klein (1993Klein ( , 2000 proposed that while fear is central to panic in post-traumatic stress disorder, persons who have panic disorder have a genetically-based carbon dioxide hypersensitivity that sets off a "deranged suffocation alarm" in the brain. People with panic can induce panic attacks through hyperventilation and/or breath-holding (Gorman, Kent, Sullivan & Coplan, 2000;Nardi et al, 2004). They have significant respiratory variability , breathing dysregulation, and "suffocation sensitivity" (Sinha et al,1999;Goetz & Klein, 2001).…”
Section: Acute Respiratory Distress: Key To Differential Diagnosismentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Higher neural centers subserving emotion, influence changes in respiration outside of awareness (Brannan et al, 2001). Anxiety can set in motion psychological defense patterns involving maladaptive respiratory habits that in turn trigger carbon dioxide sensitivity reactions, eventuating in panic (Klein, 1993, Nardi et al, 2004.…”
Section: Acute Respiratory Distress: Key To Differential Diagnosismentioning
confidence: 99%