Risk factors in the environment such as air pollution and traffic noise contribute to the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases.
Epidemiological data suggest that air pollution and traffic noise are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular, metabolic, and mental disease, including hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, diabetes, arrhythmia, stroke, neurodegeneration, depression, and anxiety disorders, mainly by activation of stress hormone signaling, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
We here provide an in-depth review on the impact of the environmental risk factors air pollution and traffic noise exposure (components of the external exposome) on cardiovascular health, with special emphasis on the role of environmentally triggered oxidative stress and dysregulation of the circadian clock. Also, a general introduction on the contribution of circadian rhythms to cardiovascular health and disease as well as a detailed mechanistic discussion of redox regulatory pathways of the circadian clock system is provided.
Finally, we discuss the potential of preventive strategies or “chrono” therapy for cardioprotection.
Antioxid. Redox Signal
. 37, 679–703.