2021
DOI: 10.3390/ani11040952
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Chronic Pain in Dogs and Cats: Is There Place for Dietary Intervention with Micro-Palmitoylethanolamide?

Abstract: The management of chronic pain is an integral challenge of small animal veterinary practitioners. Multiple pharmacological agents are usually employed to treat maladaptive pain including opiates, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and others. In order to limit adverse effects and tolerance development, they are often combined with non-pharmacologic measures such as acupuncture and dietary interventions. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-neuronal cells such as mast ce… Show more

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Cited by 10 publications
(13 citation statements)
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References 246 publications
(129 reference statements)
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“…Interestingly, this heterogeneous family of PEA molecular targets is being extensively studied in companion animals, with their distribution being confirmed in several canine and feline cell types [ 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 ], as recently reviewed [ 3 , 32 , 93 ].…”
Section: A Brief Insight Into Pea Metabolism and Molecular Targetsmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Interestingly, this heterogeneous family of PEA molecular targets is being extensively studied in companion animals, with their distribution being confirmed in several canine and feline cell types [ 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 ], as recently reviewed [ 3 , 32 , 93 ].…”
Section: A Brief Insight Into Pea Metabolism and Molecular Targetsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Their respective mechanisms of action have been (and still are being) investigated and appear to be profoundly interconnected to the parent compound PEA, which is by far the most studied ALIAmide [ 3 , 32 , 33 ]. A brief overview of their molecular mechanisms will be given in the following paragraphs.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…PEA anti-inflammatory effects have been tested in several in vitro and in vivo models of colitis, as well as gastrointestinal biopsies from human patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functional dyspepsia [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. Interestingly, the PEA safety and tolerability profile is very favorable in human and animal patients [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ], especially if subjected to particle size reduction [ 10 ]. On the other hand, one of the main limitations to the use of PEA in clinical practice lies in its poor pharmacokinetic profile, due to marked lipophilicity that limits solubility and in vivo absorption.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The plasticity of astrocytes and microglia is also a characteristic of neuropathic pain states. PEA, as a modulator of the glial response [12], is active against different models of neuropathy [13], as well as naturally occurring chronic pain in human and veterinary patients, as recently reviewed in [14]. Moreover, PEA protects against neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation [ [15][16][17][18][19] and downmodulates mast cell degranulation [7,20].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%