2007
DOI: 10.1590/s0001-37652007000400004 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carci… Show more

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“…17). Chemical carcinogenicity may be based either on genotoxic or nongenotoxic (epigenetic) mechanisms (Oliveira et al, 2007). Alternative methods for the determination of genotoxicity have been in use for over 40 years.…”
Section: Fig 14: Roadmap To Animal-free Toxicokinetic Predictionsmentioning
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“…17). Chemical carcinogenicity may be based either on genotoxic or nongenotoxic (epigenetic) mechanisms (Oliveira et al, 2007). Alternative methods for the determination of genotoxicity have been in use for over 40 years.…”
Section: Fig 14: Roadmap To Animal-free Toxicokinetic Predictionsmentioning
“…More interest has been generated since the development of specific targeted therapies against the processes involved in the carcinogenesis of many types of cancers [20][21][22] . During the 1990s it was discovered that the EGFR [23] played an important role in tumoral biology and behavior [14] .…”
Section: Molecular Pathway Modelmentioning
“…Similar conclusions can be drawn from the analysis of studies regarding its predictive value in response to currently recommended treatments, targeted chemotherapy and radiation therapy; furthermore, it may be a factor in resistance to therapy in the early stages (Ⅰ andⅡ), but not in advanced stages [26,33] . Several studies have found an inverse association between K-Ras mutations and mutations in the EGFR tyrosine-kinase domain [20,33] . These data suggest the possible existence of two distinct molecular pathways in lung carcinogenesis: one associated with smoking and activation of K-Ras; and another not associated with smoking and activation of EGFR [28,29,36,37] .…”
Section: Molecular Pathway Modelmentioning
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“…We believe it is likely that revamping our testing paradigms by basing them on updated and rigorously tested science and leaving the precautionary aspect explicitly to the risk management process would better serve both those involved in carcinogenicity testing and the public. Our current basic understanding of chemical carcinogenesis (Loeb and Harris, 2008;Luch, 2005;Oliveira et al, 2007;Williams, 2001;Wogan et al, 2004) …”
Section: Understand Signaling Pathwaysmentioning