The solutions of cracked elbow are shown to be excessively conservative and on occasion, non-applicable to the cases for which they are intended. The objective of the work described in this paper is to use the 3D non-linear finite element method (FEM) backed up with experimental results to determine the collapse limit load. Non-linear finite element analyses were performed considering both material and geometrical non-linearity using the advanced fracture analysis code WARP3D. Various alternative methods are …
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