2014
DOI: 10.2147/rrcc.s41513
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Abstract: Cachexia and muscle wasting are frequently observed in heart failure patients. Cachexia is a predictor of reduced survival, independent of important parameters such as age, heart failure functional class, and functional capacity. Muscle and fat wasting can also predict adverse outcome during cardiac failure. Only more recently were these conditions defined in International Consensus. Considering that heart failure is an inflammatory disease, cardiac cachexia has been diagnosed by finding a body weight loss .5%… Show more

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Cited by 3 publications
(5 citation statements)
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References 74 publications
(112 reference statements)
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“…This discrepancy may be due to the higher prevalence of hospitalization with cardiovascular disease in PD patients than in HD patients 24 . Cardiac cachexia is well established as an independent risk factor for fatality and poor QoL in patients with CHF 25,26 . One of the most important aetiology of cardiac cachexia is food intake reduction 26 .…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…This discrepancy may be due to the higher prevalence of hospitalization with cardiovascular disease in PD patients than in HD patients 24 . Cardiac cachexia is well established as an independent risk factor for fatality and poor QoL in patients with CHF 25,26 . One of the most important aetiology of cardiac cachexia is food intake reduction 26 .…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Cardiac cachexia is well established as an independent risk factor for fatality and poor QoL in patients with CHF 25,26 . One of the most important aetiology of cardiac cachexia is food intake reduction 26 . Since anorexia and cachexia share overlapping mechanisms and features; thus, the terms of cardiac anorexia and anorexia‐cachexia syndrome were used interchangeably in the literature 25 .…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…It seems that the loss of mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction may also be implicated in the increase of cell-damaging oxygen free radicals. [35][36][37][38]…”
Section: Imbalance Between Anabolic and Catabolic Metabolismmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Due to the occurrence of these major metabolic alterations in CC, HF symptoms worsen. [32][33][34][35][36][37][38]…”
Section: Clinical Repercussions Of Cardiac Cachexiamentioning
confidence: 99%
“…While the mechanism(s) involved in the progression of cardiac cachexia are incompletely established, certain factors appear to contribute to its development (Figure 1). Dietary deficiencies, especially of protein, and impaired bowel perfusion contribute to reduced muscle mass and increased muscle wasting, possibly due to reduced digestive abilities and increased protein loss from the gut [6, 17, 18]. Metabolic dysfunction may also contribute to cardiac cachexia through increased muscle metabolic rate, increased protein degradation, reduced protein synthesis, and increased proinflammatory cytokines and neuroendocrine factors [6, 17].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%