DOI: 10.1155/2013/906726
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Abstract: Hypoxia has been recently proposed as a neuroinflammatogen, which drives microglia to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-6. Considering the fact that propolis has hepatoprotective, antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects, propolis may have protective effects against the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, propolis (50 μg/mL) was found to significantly inhibit the hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and th…

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