2016
DOI: 10.1590/0101-31572016v36n01a12
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Abstract: Before the mid 1980s the World Bank conceived "nature" as something to be "conquered" and "environment" as a source of resources for "development". By the late 1980s the Bank incorporated norms of environmental sustainability and indigenous peoples' protection into its mandate, and other development-oriented IOs followed. This two-part paper describes how a fight over the Polonoroeste road project in the Brazilian Amazon - inside the Bank, between the Bank and NGOs supported by the US Congress, and between the… Show more

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Cited by 8 publications
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“…Second, ‘mistakes’ made by IOs can have dramatic consequences, as their projects and interventions often have high stakes and existential effects on millions of people. To avoid catastrophic failures, IOs are highly dependent on criticism (for one example among many, see Wade 2016 ). For IOs in particular, criticism from within is therefore an indispensable resource.…”
Section: Internal Criticism As a Resource For Ios—but Only In Principle?mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Second, ‘mistakes’ made by IOs can have dramatic consequences, as their projects and interventions often have high stakes and existential effects on millions of people. To avoid catastrophic failures, IOs are highly dependent on criticism (for one example among many, see Wade 2016 ). For IOs in particular, criticism from within is therefore an indispensable resource.…”
Section: Internal Criticism As a Resource For Ios—but Only In Principle?mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Due to the influence of UAV's photography posture, angle and distance, the gray level of white spiking target is not obvious and the contrast is not high. Through the conversion, we can enlarge the dynamic range of gray level of the image, improve the contrast of the image, highlight the details of the white peak in the image, and improve the effect of target recognition [19][20].…”
Section: ) Gray Scale Transformationmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…To that extent, the Bank's CPF priorities exhibit the “continuity bias” to which public bureaucracies are notoriously prone (Hennessy, ). This may be compounded by the well‐recognized lending imperative which is inherent in the Bank's business model, and which results in Bank country staff having incentives to lend which can override both the Bank's global priorities and countries’ own priorities (Bebbington, Lewis, Batterbury, Olson, & Shameem Siddiqi, ; Wade, ).…”
Section: Ownership In the World Bank's Country Operations: Sri Lanka mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In line with Mintzberg's () influential characterization, the locus of power is as much in the “operating core” as in the “strategic apex.” That is, the professional autonomy which the Bank's technocrats necessarily enjoy (the Bank would grind to a halt if everything had to be referred up to top management) means that they have a good deal more power relative to the Bank's management and its Board than one might expect. Hence Wade's (, p. 661) finding that in two Bank projects, in Brazil and Indonesia, “The balance of power lay with operational staff.” Likewise, Bebbington et al. found that new policy norms appear much more readily in Bank documents than in its practice on the ground.…”
Section: The World Bank's Organizational Culturementioning
confidence: 99%