2020
DOI: 10.3390/polym13010058 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Citric acid-based wood adhesive is considered a chemical-bonding wood adhesive. However, the detailed structures of the bonds between wood components and citric acid remain unknown. Here, we examine the chemical bonding structures between citric acid and wood by heteronuclear single quantum coherence-nuclear magnetic resonance (HSQC-NMR) analysis of wood-based molding using Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and citric acid. In the HSQC-NMR spectrum of the wood molding, some esterified C/H correlation peaks… Show more

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“…Some of the wood components were esterified with citric acid although the content of the citric acid in the sucrose/citric acid type adhesive wood-based molding was lower than that in the citric acid type adhesive wood-based molding [ 32 ]. Namely, it was elucidated that the interface between the furan polymer and wood powder was bonded via citric acid ( Figure 4 ).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
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“…Some of the wood components were esterified with citric acid although the content of the citric acid in the sucrose/citric acid type adhesive wood-based molding was lower than that in the citric acid type adhesive wood-based molding [ 32 ]. Namely, it was elucidated that the interface between the furan polymer and wood powder was bonded via citric acid ( Figure 4 ).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…Prior to the FT, the data matrices were zero-filled up to 2048 and 1024 points in the 1 H and 13 C dimensions, respectively. The spectra of wood powder, shown in Figure 1 a, Figure 2 a and Figure 3 a), were referred from those in the previous report [ 32 ] for comparing with the molding, because the same wood powder is the starting material in this study.…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
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“…More CA content in the feed led to more branching which resulted into higher steric repulsion and eventually reduced both the rate of reaction and the yield. [23] However, more branching consequently developed lesser amount of chain entanglement and generated more void or free space in between the molecular segments of copolyesters. That eventually allowed more water molecules (solvent) to penetrate the polymeric network and thereby increased the solubility.…”
Section: Reaction Protocol Copolymer Yield and Solubility Analysismentioning
“…Katović et al [ 25 ] esterified fir and beech with citric acid, and the results showed a good improvement in the dimensional stability of wood. Ando and Umemura [ 26 ] concluded that citric acid bonds with wood components and that the bonds improve the wood molding properties, although polysaccharides are damaged slightly in this process. Šefc [ 11 ] impregnated fir and beech wood samples with citric acid and enhanced dimensional stability; compressive strength parallel to the grain was not affected but reduced its micro tensile strength.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning