Despite the growing structure of the National Immunization Program, it was possible to witness the resurgence of immunopreventable diseases that were supposed to be controlled. Such phenomenon motivates unrest and discussion in the field of public health, encouraging the academic and scientific community to seek answers, because clearly factors are interfering with the quality of the intended end product, which is the immunogenic protection of populations. In this way, it was evidenced that the media has favored the circulation of dubious and falsely articulated information, causing a fear in the populationthat makes it difficult to adhere to receiving vaccines. Frequently, those attitudes are based on concepts,values, philosophical and religious beliefs that hinder the effective communication of health professionals and the population eligible to receive the immunobiological. In this scenario , false news can cause health problems, hence, it is important to stands out the significance of scientific information. False publications were determinants in the worldwide expansion of the anti-vaccine movement. Indicators of morbidity and mortality are important in the delineation of coping priority in healthcare, but understanding the phenomena that permeate the decision making of populations is of paramount importance for the design of strategies. Research methodologies with different perspective on the same topic complement each other. It is not enough to quantify the problem, but it is also necessary to look for the social changes that occur inthe group and to determine the diversification of behavior in society, mixed research methodologies often propose results that broaden understanding. It is emphasized that providing false information implies the deconstruction of science, considering that scientific information supports decisions that involve the health of the population in different contexts and support the development of public health policies.