volume 29, issue 9, P1157-1167 1996
DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(96)00012-7
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Robert Riener, Jochen Quintern, Günther Schmidt

Abstract: A detailed model of the human knee was developed to predict shank motion induced by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS). A discrete-time model is used to characterize the relationship between stimulus parameters and muscle activation. A Hill-based model of the musculotendon actuator accounts for nonlinear static and dynamic properties of both muscle and tendon. Muscle fatigue and passive muscle viscosity are modeled in detail. Moment arms are computed from musculotendon paths of 13 actuators and from jo…

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