Abstract:Polyrhodanines have been broadly utilized in diverse fields due to their attractive features. The effect of polyrhodanine- (PR-) based materials on human cells can be considered a controversial matter, while many contradictions exist. In this study, we focused on the synthesis of polyrhodanine/Fe3O4 modified by graphene oxide and the effect of kombucha (Ko) supernatant on results. The general structure of synthetic compounds was determined in detail through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Also… Show more
“…Surface modification of NPs creates a link between polymers and their surface [ 60 , 61 ]. This method improves the polymer matrix, dispersibility of NPs in the polymer matrix and causes to raising the characteristics of the resulting composites [ 17 ].…”
Section: Macromolecules Used In the Synthesis Of Zinc Nssmentioning
Zinc nanostructures (ZnONSs) have attracted much attention due to their morphological, physicochemical, and electrical properties, which were entailed for various biomedical applications such as cancer and diabetes treatment, anti-inflammatory activity, drug delivery. ZnONS play an important role in inducing cellular apoptosis, triggering excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and releasing zinc ions due to their inherent nature and specific shape. Therefore, several new synthetic organometallic method has been developed to prepare ZnO crystalline nanostructures with controlled size and shape. Zinc oxide nanostructures’ crystal size and shape can be controlled by simply changing the physical synthesis condition such as microwave irradiation time, reaction temperature, and TEA concentration at reflux. Physicochemical properties which are determined by the shape and size of ZnO nanostructures, directly affect their biological applications. These nanostructures can decompose the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm, which leads to apoptosis or cell death. In this study, we reviewed the various synthesis methods which affect the nano shapes of zinc particles, and physicochemical properties of zinc nanostructures that determined the shape of zinc nanomaterials. Also, we mentioned some macromolecules that controlled their physicochemical properties in a green and biological approaches. In addition, we present the recent progress of ZnONSs in the biomedical fields, which will help centralize biomedical fields and assist their future research development.
“…This causes the virus to be released into the cytoplasm. Then, the virus travels to where the viral gene expression occurs (the nuclear pore complex) [ 88 , 89 ]. The immune system fights the innate immune responses that are incompatible with viral infections.…”
Section: Background Of Smart Nanoexosomesmentioning
Smart nanoexosomes are nanosized structures enclosed in lipid bilayers that are structurally similar to the viruses released by a variety of cells, including the cells lining the respiratory system. Of particular importance, the interaction between smart nanoexosomes and viruses can be used to develop antiviral drugs and vaccines. It is possible that nanoexosomes will be utilized and antibodies will be acquired more successfully for the transmission of an immune response if reconvalescent plasma (CP) is used instead of reconvalescent plasma exosomes (CPExo) in this concept. Convalescent plasma contains billions of smart nanoexosomes capable of transporting a variety of molecules, including proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA among other viral infections. Smart nanoexosomes are released from virus-infected cells and play an important role in mediating communication between infected and uninfected cells. Infections use the formation, production and release of smart nanoexosomes to enhance the infection, transmission and intercellular diffusion of viruses. Cell-free smart nanoexosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could also be used as cell-free therapies in certain cases. Smart nanoexosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells can also promote mitochondrial function and heal lung injury. They can reduce cytokine storms and restore the suppression of host antiviral defenses weakened by viral infections. This study examines the benefits of smart nanoexosomes and their roles in viral transmission, infection, treatment, drug delivery and clinical applications. We also explore some potential future applications for smart nanoexosomes in the treatment of viral infections.
“…In addition, it is a conductor-like structure with zero band gaps and has two poles that cover the effect of an electric content with great charge carrier flexibility (15,000–20,000 cm 2 /Vs) [ 39 , 40 ]. Porous carbon (charcoal), with its large external area and availability with a short route to transfer electron and mass, has also attracted significant attention and formed the foundation of electrochemical sensors [ 41 ]. Due to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPA), spongy materials are separated into three classes based on their pore size: microporous < 2 nm, 2 nm < mesoporous < 50 nm, and macroporous > 50 nanometer.…”
Section: Accuracy Of Different Nanosensors In Particle Detectionmentioning
Diabetes mellitus (DM) follows a series of metabolic diseases categorized by high blood sugar levels. Owing to the increasing diabetes disease in the world, early diagnosis of this disease is critical. New methods such as nanotechnology have made significant progress in many areas of medical science and physiology. Nanobiosensors are very sensible and can identify single virus particles or even low concentrations of a material that can be inherently harmful. One of the main factors for developing glucose sensors in the body is the diagnosis of hypoglycemia in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the most up-to-date and fastest glucose detection method by nanosensors and, as a result, faster and better treatment in medical sciences. In this review, we try to explore new ways to control blood glucose levels and treat diabetes. We begin with a definition of biosensors and their classification and basis, and then we examine the latest biosensors in glucose detection and new biosensors applications, including the artificial pancreas and updating quantum graphene data.
“…Graphene can be functionalized  with small molecules, nanoparticles, and polymers via chemical interactions . The emergence of different devices that can meet specific characteristics for various purposes is dedicated to the ability of graphene surfaces to be functionalized with molecules of diverse nature [10,23,24].…”
Dental tissue engineering (TE) is undergoing significant modifications in dental treatments. TE is based on a triad of stem cells, signaling molecules, and scaffolds that must be understood and calibrated with particular attention to specific dental sectors. Renewable and eco-friendly carbon-based nanomaterials (CBMs), including graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), graphene quantum dots (GQD), carbon nanotube (CNT), MXenes and carbide, have extraordinary physical, chemical, and biological properties. In addition to having high surface area and mechanical strength, CBMs have greatly influenced dental and biomedical applications. The current study aims to explore the application of CBMs for dental tissue engineering. CBMs are generally shown to have remarkable properties, due to various functional groups that make them ideal materials for biomedical applications, such as dental tissue engineering.
“…Salmani et al 9 reported the soft magnetic property of zirconium-ferrite (Zr–Fe 3 O 4 ) treated bioceramics which indicated the significant potential of the synthesized composite in biomedical applications. Mousavi et al 10 synthesized polyrhodanine/Fe 3 O 4 modified with graphene oxide which demonstrated effective antibacterial and anticancer properties. Rezaeian et al 11 devised a mathematical model to study the efficacy of magnetically-controlled targeted delivery of drugs using magnetic NPs in intraperitoneal chemotherapy as compared to the drug delivery in conventional intraperitoneal chemotherapy.…”
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO
NPs) have shown tremendous potential in targeted drug-delivery applications. Among various mechanisms, magnetically guided transport of drugs is one such technique for the said purpose. TiO
NPs being diamagnetic or sometimes exhibiting very weak ferromagnetism can be modified by treating them with suitable magnetic materials.
NPs were synthesized and doped with Iron Supplement FericipXT and rare-earth metals like cerium, erbium and neodymium via sol–gel technique. FericipXT-coated rutile TiO
NPs were synthesized in three different core-shell ratios (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1). The resulting samples were characterized via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM).
XRD of FericipXT-doped TiO
NPs showed a rutile phase for 1% and 3% doping; however, only a small fraction of the maghemite phase was obtained for 5% doping. The XRD plots of Ce-doped, Er-doped and Nd-doped TiO
NPs showed a variety of phases of TiO
NPs (such as anatase/rutile/mixed) along with the oxide phases of the corresponding rare-earth metal. The presence of various iron titanium oxides and iron oxides was found in core-shell NPs. HR-TEM images confirmed the formation of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 core-shell TiO
NPs. VSM studies showed that the resulting NPs depicted magnetism in the form of superparamagnetism, ferromagnetism and even paramagnetism.
The doping to 3% does not affect the original phase of the resulting TiO
NPs as depicted from the XRD; however, a doping of 5% and more resulted in extra phases corresponding to the dopant added. FericipXT was loaded over TiO
NPs in amorphous form. Among all the samples synthesized, FericipXT-coated TiO
NPs demonstrated the best magnetic ability. It was deduced that coating with a magnetic material drastically improves the magnetic character of the host NPs.
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