2021
DOI: 10.1002/ptr.7220
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Bilobalide: A review of its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and safety

Abstract: Bilobalide is a natural sesquiterpene trilactone from Ginkgo biloba leaves. It has good water solubility and is widely used in food and pharmaceutical fields. In the last decade, a plethora of studies on the pharmacological activities of bilobalide has been conducted and demonstrated that bilobalide possessed an extensive range of pharmacological activities such as neuroprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, antiischemic, and cardiovascular protective activities. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that bi… Show more

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Cited by 26 publications
(18 citation statements)
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References 106 publications
(146 reference statements)
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“…Because containing multiple ingredients, GbE might exert extensive effects on the cardiovascular system, including the direct and indirect actions. The well‐absorbed components including terpene lactones (Lu, Xie, et al, 2021), could exert direct pharmacological effects on endothelial cells and immune cells on the artery during atherosclerosis (Feng et al, 2018). In contrast, components with low absorptive behaviors, such as flavonoids (Barve et al, 2009; Chen et al, 2010), retain largely in gut and might shape the intestinal microbial composition via exhibiting antimicrobial activities or becoming nutrient sources for particular bacterial species (Kaakoush & Morris, 2017).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…Because containing multiple ingredients, GbE might exert extensive effects on the cardiovascular system, including the direct and indirect actions. The well‐absorbed components including terpene lactones (Lu, Xie, et al, 2021), could exert direct pharmacological effects on endothelial cells and immune cells on the artery during atherosclerosis (Feng et al, 2018). In contrast, components with low absorptive behaviors, such as flavonoids (Barve et al, 2009; Chen et al, 2010), retain largely in gut and might shape the intestinal microbial composition via exhibiting antimicrobial activities or becoming nutrient sources for particular bacterial species (Kaakoush & Morris, 2017).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Ginkgolide A and Ginkgolide B, two terpene lactone components of GbE, could relieve endothelial dysfunction partly by suppressing oxidative stress (Feng et al, 2018; Zhou et al, 2006). However, besides the direct pharmacological actions from well‐absorbed terpene lactones (Lu et al, 2021), the exact mechanism underlying the antiatherogenic effects of GbE's components with low oral bioavailability, such as flavonoids (Chen et al, 2010), is still obscure and controversial nowadays. Recent studies have reported that GbE and its components could interact with the intestinal microbiota and exert anti‐inflammatory, anti‐obese, and anti‐depressant activities (Bian et al, 2022; Chen et al, 2019; Zhang, Wang, Su, Fang, & Guo, 2021).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In view of this, Cao et al (Cao et al, 2016; Li et al, 2018) demonstrated that ginsenoside Re could inhibit BACE1 by activating PPARγ, which ultimately reduces the production of Aβ. APP can produce sAPPα via α‐secretase mediated non‐amyloidogenic pathway and produce Aβ via β‐secretase and γ‐secretase mediated amyloidogenic pathway (Lu et al, 2021). Ginsenoside Rd could increase expression of α‐secretase and sAPPα, while decrease expression of β‐secretase and Aβ (Yan et al, 2017).…”
Section: Pharmacological Actionsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The study of pharmacokinetics can make people better understand a series of action rules of drugs after entering the body, so as to better optimize and improve drugs on this basis, and make contributions to further clinical research and application (Lu et al, 2021). When IBC was administered orally at a single dose of 80 mg/kg, the main pharmacokinetic parameters in rats were: peak time (Tmax): 2.25 ± 0.52 h, maximum concentration (Cmax): 351.2 ± 229.2 ng/ml, half‐life (T 1/2 ): 6.15 ± 1.99 h, area under time curve (AUC [0‐ ∞ ]): 1665.5 ± 270.9 ng/ml·h, clearance rate (CL/F): 9.86 ± 1.78 L/h, apparent volume of distribution (V/F): 90.34 ± 47.17 L (Ma et al, 2015).…”
Section: Pharmacokinetics Of Ibcmentioning
confidence: 99%