Colour and colour patterns seem to be especially important visual warning signals for predators, which might have innate or learned ability to avoid aposematic prey. To test the importance of larval colour pattern of the aposematic ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an invasive alien species in Europe, we presented the plasticine models of aposematic larvae to wild and naïve birds. We studied the attacks on aposematic larvae of various patterns and colours in nature and …
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