1998
DOI: 10.1080/109158198226099 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: In the three and a half decades since the first published reports of squamous cell carcinomas in the skin of hairless mice exposed to ultraviolet radiation, this animal model has been developed and utilized extensively in basic and applied photobiology. Quantitative aspects of photocarcinogenesis had been investigated initially in haired mice; subsequently, the discipline of photoimmunology has developed largely on the basis of information derived from haired animals. Classical selective breeding methods, a fe… Show more

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“…Moreover, to get more insight into the possible cocarcinogenic effects of ELF MF, additional studies are needed that use animal models which combine long-term exposure to MF with prolonged treatment with known carcinogens. This type of cocarcinogenesis studies, which are not based on the initiation-promotion paradigm, have been used in other ®elds of research [Forbes and Sambuco, 1998], so experimental models are available that can be applied to research on MFs. In addition, we suggest that mammary tumor experiments such as those performed by Lo Èscher and colleagues 1993, might show a stronger response to MF exposure if the DMBA treatment were given as several small doses over a longer period of time.…”
Section: Review Of Animal Studies On Possible Cocarcinogenic Effectsmentioning
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“…Moreover, to get more insight into the possible cocarcinogenic effects of ELF MF, additional studies are needed that use animal models which combine long-term exposure to MF with prolonged treatment with known carcinogens. This type of cocarcinogenesis studies, which are not based on the initiation-promotion paradigm, have been used in other ®elds of research [Forbes and Sambuco, 1998], so experimental models are available that can be applied to research on MFs. In addition, we suggest that mammary tumor experiments such as those performed by Lo Èscher and colleagues 1993, might show a stronger response to MF exposure if the DMBA treatment were given as several small doses over a longer period of time.…”
Section: Review Of Animal Studies On Possible Cocarcinogenic Effectsmentioning
“…Many biomedical studies are designed to assess covariate effects on the time to recurrence of health‐related outcomes, such as infections, hospitalizations, or recurrences of disease. For example, data of this type are collected in chemoprevention and carcinogenicity studies measuring the rate of appearance of palpable tumors of the skin and breast of mice (Gail, Santner, and Brown, 1980; Forbes and Sambuco, 1998; Dunson, 2000). In these experiments, a rich set of data is available for each mouse, including times of appearance of each lesion, total number of tumors, and time of death.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…For about twenty years, regulatory agencies in the United States and other countries have been concerned about the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)induced skin tumors and have requested photosafety data on compounds that meet stated criteria (27). Typically, these studies involve administration of the compound and simulated sunlight exposure using hairless mice as the test system or animal model (28)(29)(30)(31)(32).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning