Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of tumor-related mortality. In addition to surgery and endoscopic resection, systemic therapy remains the main treatment option for GC, especially for advanced-stage disease and for cases not suitable for surgical therapy. Hence, improving the efficacy of systemic therapy is still an urgent problem to overcome. In the past decade, the essential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumor treatment have been increasingly recognized. In particular, miRNAs were recently shown to reverse the resistance to chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and doxorubicin. Synthesized nanoparticles loaded with mimics or inhibitors of miRNAs can directly target tumor cells to suppress their growth. Moreover, exosomes may serve as promising safe carriers for mimics or inhibitors of miRNAs to treat GC. Some miRNAs have also been shown to play roles in the mechanism of action of other anti-tumor drugs. Therefore, in this review, we highlight the research progress on microRNA-based therapy in GC and discuss the challenges and prospects associated with this strategy. We believe that microRNA-based therapy has the potential to offer a clinical benefit to GC patients, and this review would contribute to and motivate further research to promote this field toward this ultimate goal.