Rugged equilibrium of electron plasmas seen in linear, cylindrical machines [I] are unknown for toroidal traps from a theoretical standpoint, due to lack of invariants. Earlier experiments  have successfully demonstrated equilibrium in toroidally continuous traps; however, breaking the toroidal symmetry to create a Penning-trap arrangement, has additional unknown consequences for the equilibrium. So a Toroidal Penning Trap has been created in a low aspect-ratio device to experimentally investigate the equ…
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