2000
DOI: 10.1177/107110070002100208 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Inversion sprains of the lateral ligaments of the ankle are one of the most common of all sporting injuries. While the strains in the anterior talofibular (ATFL) and calcaneofibular (CFL) ligaments have been measured in quasi-static conditions, the dynamic strains during an actual traumatic event have not been determined. The present investigation determined the strains and strain rates in the ATFL and CFL during an in vitro inversion sprain. The ATFL tended to have higher strain and strain rate values than th… Show more

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“…In a recent study to analyze the ankle supination sprain injury with video, Andersen and coworkers [ 87 ] reported that there were two major mechanisms: (1) impact by opponent on the medial aspect of the leg just before or at foot strike, resulting in a laterally directed force causing the player to land with the ankle in a vulnerable inverted position; (2) forced plantar flexion when the injured player hit the opponent's foot when attempting to shoot or clear the ball. Most of these mechanisms finally led to the rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament, as this ligament often sustained higher strain and strain rate values than the other ligaments at the lateral ankle [ 88 ].…”
Section: Reviewmentioning
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“…In a recent study to analyze the ankle supination sprain injury with video, Andersen and coworkers [ 87 ] reported that there were two major mechanisms: (1) impact by opponent on the medial aspect of the leg just before or at foot strike, resulting in a laterally directed force causing the player to land with the ankle in a vulnerable inverted position; (2) forced plantar flexion when the injured player hit the opponent's foot when attempting to shoot or clear the ball. Most of these mechanisms finally led to the rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament, as this ligament often sustained higher strain and strain rate values than the other ligaments at the lateral ankle [ 88 ].…”
Section: Reviewmentioning
“…In static cadaver study, Markolf, Schmalzried and Ferkel reported that a 41–45 Nm external rotatory torque would cause ankle failure [ 89 ], as defined by a major drop-off of the torque as the foot continued to rotate, indicating a bony fracture or ligamentous rupture. In dynamic cadaver study, Self, Harris and Greenwald [ 88 ] studied the ankle biomechanics during a drop test with cadaver ankles, to simulate the scenario in landing technique in sports [ 90 ]. For systematically evaluation, Wright and coworkers [ 67 , 91 ] conducted a computational forward dynamic simulation study to investigate the ankle biomechanics during landing on irregular surfaces.…”
Section: Reviewmentioning
“…Compression of the leg onto a wedge that slopes down laterally at a sufficiently steep angle induces unstable inversion of the ankle, and therefore is considered here to be a test of inversion as injury mechanism rather than axial compression. Self et al (2000) and Konradsen and Voigt (2002) produced ATaFL tears initially, followed by CFL tears in this mode of loading with a 30° wedge, whereas Hirsch and Lewis (1965) produced mostly lateral and bimalleolar fractures. The discrepancy may be related to the inversion angle and method of foot fixation, which were not described by Hirsch and Lewis (1965).…”
Section: Review Of Experimental Literaturementioning
“…The calcaneus is spared more often when axial loading is combined with shear loading and ankle rotation, which occurs when the foot strikes the ground with a horizontal velocity or lands on an uneven surface. Axial loading of a substantially inverted or everted ankle produces injuries typical of inversion or eversion (Hirsch and Lewis,1965; Self et al,2000; Konradsen and Voigt,2002). Axial loading of a dorsiflexed ankle most often produces fractures of the distal tibia or talus, with calcaneal and malleolar fractures also occurring less frequently (Hirsch and Lewis,1965; Boon et al,2001; Assal et al,2002).…”
Section: Review Of Experimental Literaturementioning
“…3,5,6 Understanding the mechanism of injury involved in LAS is essential to prevent injury, 3,5 to establish or evaluate surgical repair and reconstruction, 7 and to minimize the residual consequences of LAS using reliable rehabilitation protocols. 6 A number of studies using various methods, including cadaver testing, [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] video analysis, 15,16 and computational models, [17][18][19][20] have been conducted to explain the mechanisms of injury of LAS. Although cadaveric studies play important roles in understanding the injury mechanisms of ankle ligaments, they have limitations such as difficulties in applying complex loading in real injury situations and lack of repeatability to test the same subject.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning