2021
DOI: 10.1109/tbcas.2021.3096722
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Abstract: Emergingnon-imaging ultrasound applications, such as ultrasonic wireless power delivery to implantable devices and ultrasound neuromodulation, require wearable form factors, millisecond-range pulse durations and focal spot diameters approaching 100 µm with electronic control of its three-dimensional location. None of these are compatible with typical handheld linear array ultrasound imaging probes. In this work, we present a 4 mm x 5 mm 2D ultrasound phased array transmitter with integrated piezoelectric ultra… Show more

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Cited by 17 publications
(3 citation statements)
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References 42 publications
(75 reference statements)
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“…There are two main types of ultrasound transducers that are widely used, piezoelectric transducers (PZT) and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT). PZT has high electroacoustic sensitivity [10] but cannot be integrated with CMOS technology easily, whereas CMUT supports a high bandwidth and CMOS integration but requires a large dc bias for operation [11]. In this work, PZT was selected because it does not need a large dc bias, making it more suitable for a wearable application.…”
Section: Analog Front-end Architecture and Core Circuitsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…There are two main types of ultrasound transducers that are widely used, piezoelectric transducers (PZT) and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT). PZT has high electroacoustic sensitivity [10] but cannot be integrated with CMOS technology easily, whereas CMUT supports a high bandwidth and CMOS integration but requires a large dc bias for operation [11]. In this work, PZT was selected because it does not need a large dc bias, making it more suitable for a wearable application.…”
Section: Analog Front-end Architecture and Core Circuitsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…A wearable 2D array device (CMUT) integrated with a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) 32 Element Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducer (PMUT) Phased Array for Neuromodulation chip has been developed in [26] that generated an acoustic pressure output of ~ 575 kPa while operating at 2 MHz with 60 V AC . A 26×26 2D phased array using 267 µm thick PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramics as transducers has been fabricated on a CMOS chip, delivering an acoustic pressure of 40 kPa at 5 V excitation at 8.4 MHz [27]. Moreover, a relatively thinner bulk PZT transducer was presented in [28] where the 16-element array with a 40 µm thick PZT layer on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer could achieve a peak intensity up to 1.1 W/cm 2 with an input of 66 V. Despite these recent efforts, piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUT) with piezoelectric thin films offer advantages in device miniaturization, high bandwidth and sensitivity, and compatibility with the front-end electronic integration [29].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In addition, the CMOS process is limited to technologies that allow electrical contact from its last metal layer to the MEMS device within a specific post-process. Up until now, most of the reported PMUTs over CMOS are based on two-wafer bonding processes, in which the wafer with the PMUT (either AlN or PZT) is bonded to a CMOS wafer with analog front-end circuitry [10][11][12][13]. Despite the feasibility of this approach, the complexity of the bonding process and the limitations of the achievable fill factor impose some limitations.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%