Two classes of short RNAs have been identified as sequence-specific posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, acting via RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). They are termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Despite initial discovery from unrelated studies, these RNA classes are related in their biogenesis and assembly into RISC RNA-protein complexes, and are able to regulate gene transcripts negatively in diverse eukaryotes (Ambros, Nature, 2004, 431:350-355; Bartel, Cell, …
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