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Cited by 20 publications
(32 citation statements)
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“…It would also allow direct measurement of the decreases in the out-of-plane dynamic pressure in the body area (which is related to the body drag) when the tail is removed. However, Tobalske and colleagues (Tobalske et al, 2009) found an increase in the body drag coefficient when increasing the tail length from zero to 150% of the original length, in zebra finches mounted as during bounding flight, which is thus consistent with our results for flapping flight.…”
Section: Function Of the Tailsupporting
confidence: 91%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…It would also allow direct measurement of the decreases in the out-of-plane dynamic pressure in the body area (which is related to the body drag) when the tail is removed. However, Tobalske and colleagues (Tobalske et al, 2009) found an increase in the body drag coefficient when increasing the tail length from zero to 150% of the original length, in zebra finches mounted as during bounding flight, which is thus consistent with our results for flapping flight.…”
Section: Function Of the Tailsupporting
confidence: 91%
“…But, in the past few years, direct measurements of the wake circulation of free-flying birds have become available for a number of species, allowing a direct estimate of the forces generated (Spedding et al, 2003;Warrick et al, 2005;Hedenström et al, 2006a;Hedenström et al, 2006b;Rosén at al., 2007;Henningsson et al, 2008;Tobalske et al, 2009). Circulation has been measured in the streamwise vertical plane at different positions along the span of the birds, but none of these species have been studied in the transverse plane [with the exception of hovering humming birds (Warrick et al, 2005)].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Note that this coefficient is not directly comparable with the total coefficient of drag calculated here, since the characteristic area used for the total drag coefficient was the wing area, whereas for the body drag coefficient the body frontal area was used (Pennycuick, 2008). Drag coefficients of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata Vieillot) in bounding flight, with wings completely folded, were estimated as 0.5 at 10ms -1 and higher still at slower speeds (Tobalske et al, 2009). These values are not directly comparable with those of the gliding swift, because the zebra finches exhibit a body angle of attack to generate lift, which causes increased parasite drag.…”
Section: Gliding Wake and Forces Estimated From Itmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Flap-bounding consists of flapping phases interspersed with flexed-wing bounds during which the wings are fully adducted to the body as in perching. The primary flight muscles are not active during bounds, and the bird generates a small amount of weight support via body and tail lift ( [102][103][104]; figure 5). Species may also exhibit partial bounds and glides (with wings fully extended), although, among small species, only those with relatively pointed wings of high aspect ratio modulate their non-flapping wing postures [101], while those with rounded wings appear to only use flap-bounding.…”
Section: Scaling Of Flight Performance (A) On Being Largementioning
confidence: 99%
“…Modelling the power costs of flap-bounding generally indicates that this flight style can offer an energetic saving compared with continuous flapping during fast flight if, as is observed, the body and tail produce lift that is sufficient to support 10-15% of weight [103][104][105]. However, using kinematics of zebra finch [103], Sachs' analysis indicates that flap-bounding only offers an energetic advantage during flight into a headwind [106,107].…”
Section: Scaling Of Flight Performance (A) On Being Largementioning
confidence: 99%