2014
DOI: 10.1017/s0020818313000428
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Abstract: Two parallel norms mandate an international duty to hold state leaders individually accountable for serious corruption and human rights crimes. The development of these new norms is poorly explained by realist and neoliberal perspectives, but there are also weaknesses in recent constructivist explanations of norm diffusion that emphasize agency at the expense of structure. Such approaches have difficulty explaining the source of and similarities between new norms, and treat norm entrepreneurs as prior to and s… Show more

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Cited by 52 publications
(35 citation statements)
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References 54 publications
(17 reference statements)
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“…As the international regulation of post-conflict justice became increasingly institutionalised, states have come under strong pressures from international institutions, NGOs, as well as other states, to comply with accountability norms, especially to prosecute individuals in front of human rights courts (Kim and Sharman 2014). Cooperation with international criminal tribunals, for example, has been the cornerstone of the European Union's conditionality regime during accession negotiations with Serbia and Croatia.…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…As the international regulation of post-conflict justice became increasingly institutionalised, states have come under strong pressures from international institutions, NGOs, as well as other states, to comply with accountability norms, especially to prosecute individuals in front of human rights courts (Kim and Sharman 2014). Cooperation with international criminal tribunals, for example, has been the cornerstone of the European Union's conditionality regime during accession negotiations with Serbia and Croatia.…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The development of human rights norms is a combination of three complex processes: standard setting, investigation, and accountability. Scholars of international norms so far have focused on standard setting and, more recently, accountability (Sikkink 2011;Kim and Sharman 2014), but the process of investigation, of examining and matching conduct against norms, has been mostly overlooked. The investigation process plays an intermediate role between standard setting and accountability.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…For example, in their study of "cross-national acquisition of women's suffrage rights" from 1890 to 1990, Ramirez, Soysal, and Shanahan (1997, p. 743) demonstrate that the universalization of women's suffrage among many nationstates was primarily enabled and largely facilitated by the "existence, development, diffusion, and influence of a more inclusive world model of political citizenship" rather than national political factors. Similarly, Kim and Sharman (2014), through their empirical studies, argue that the recent rise and diffusion of individual accountability norms for both leaders' human rights crimes and corruption are a product of "an overarching modernist world culture privileging individual rights and responsibilities, as well as rational-legal authority" (Kim & Sharman 2014, p. 417).…”
Section: State Thatmentioning
confidence: 99%