The movements that occur at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) are determined by bony configurations, ligament constraints, and muscular attachments. Biomechanical studies of rotation of the head at the CCJ are based on the assumption that the postaxial skeleton is fixed. Physical examination of rotation at the CCJ in the living, however, indicates that the axis spinous process rotates in the opposite direction to that of the skull-atlas unit. This is not well described or acknowledged in biomechanical studies…
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