2016
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcol.2015.09.001 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Colorectal cancer is the leading cause of malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that lead to the disease is necessary to develop early diagnosis and optimal treatment modalities. Rodent models are rapid, reproducible and exhibit an adenoma-carcinoma sequence similar to that found in humans. The objective of this manuscript is to review the most common chemical carcinogens used to induce experimental tumors and the usual methods of evaluation.

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“…Besides adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas, and dysplastic lesions are also observed in the colon as other types of preneoplastic lesions [ 5 ]. In humans, colorectal cancer is histologically classified as an adenocarcinoma [ 4 , 6 ]. In Figure 1 we can observe the progression from normal intestinal epithelium to carcinoma.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…Besides adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas, and dysplastic lesions are also observed in the colon as other types of preneoplastic lesions [ 5 ]. In humans, colorectal cancer is histologically classified as an adenocarcinoma [ 4 , 6 ]. In Figure 1 we can observe the progression from normal intestinal epithelium to carcinoma.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…The discovery of chemical substances with carcinogenic properties has allowed the development of several experimental models of colorectal cancer 4 . These compounds, when administered to rodents, produce both benign and malignant colon neoplasms that are similar, in various aspects, to human tumors 5 - 7 .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…D. pentandra has been shown to possess potent anticancer activity. Additionally, in Indonesia it is used to treat hypertension, diabetes, coughs, and as a diuretic [ 1 3 ]. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated that flavonoids are the main active fraction of D. pentandra leaves.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…There are limitations in both efficacy and safety of current treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous studies have shown that CD4 + T helper Th1 and Th2 cells are essential in the pathogenesis of IBD [ 2 , 3 ]. Innate and adaptive immunity of the host is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic colitis.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning