Abstract A typhoon is one of environmental factors to affect coral reef ecosystems. Winds and ocean wave (wind wave and swell) induced by typhoons generates various effects of mechanical destruction (dislodgement, overturned, breakage), sedimentation, change in reef topography, and sea water cooling. Sediment and nutrients discharges induced by heavy rainfall have impacts on benthic organisms. Some climate models project that ty phoons and the corresponding maximum wind velocity and precipitation will become …
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