1982 **Abstract:** A refined gravity field model, Goddard Earth Model GEM‐L2, has been derived using the Lageos orbital data yielding better baseline measurements for the analysis of tectonic plate motion. This field also contributes to an improved understanding of long wavelength features, such as the sea slope across broad ocean basins, through its significant improvement of the long wavelength geoid (through degree and order 4). The geoid for these terms has an accuracy estimated at ± 8 cm in GEM‐L2. GEM‐L2, as in all recent …

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“…Table 2 -Correlation coefficients at harmonic degree 6 between upper mantle shear velocity models (Tanimoto, 1986;Woodhouse and Dziewonski, 1984) and the observed geoid, the slab residual geoid, and the hotspot distribution. (Lerch et al, 1983) referred to the hydrostatic figure of the Earth (Nakiboglu, 1982). In ( Observed and residual geopotentials, "yM/R (fraction of geopotential at surface), (7 is the gravitational constant, M the mass of the Earth, and R the Earth's radius.)…”

confidence: 99%

“…Table 2 -Correlation coefficients at harmonic degree 6 between upper mantle shear velocity models (Tanimoto, 1986;Woodhouse and Dziewonski, 1984) and the observed geoid, the slab residual geoid, and the hotspot distribution. (Lerch et al, 1983) referred to the hydrostatic figure of the Earth (Nakiboglu, 1982). In ( Observed and residual geopotentials, "yM/R (fraction of geopotential at surface), (7 is the gravitational constant, M the mass of the Earth, and R the Earth's radius.)…”

confidence: 99%

“…The Earth's long-wavelength geoid (shown in Figure la referred to the hydrostatic figure) has been well determined from observations of satellite orbits (Kaula, 1963;Lerch et al, 1983), but its interpretation has remained somewhat enigmatic because of its lack of resemblance to surface features such as continents and midocean ridges. However, by filtering out the lowest harmonics (degrees 2-3) which dominate the geoid spectrum (see Figure 2), it is obvious that many of the "intermediate" wavelength geoid highs are located over active subduction zones ( Figure Ib).…”

confidence: 99%

“…Figure 1 illustrates the correlation between the longi wavelength components of gravity and topography as a function of spherical barmonic degree for Venus. For comparison, the correlation between the Earth's gravity field (Lerch et al, 1982), referred to its hydrostatic figure (Nakiboglu, 1982), and "equivalent rock" topography (NOAA, 1980) is also shown. For degrees 3 through 18, the correlation is positive and statistically significant for Venus.…”

mentioning

confidence: 99%

“…As another example, Milani et al [83, p. 17] evaluated the uncertainty in J 2 just by taking the difference between the estimated values for it from two global gravity field models, i.e. GEM-L2 [64] and GEM 9 [65]: while the uncertainty of the GEM 9 value was s J 2 ¼ 1 Â 10 −9 , GEM-L2 yielded s J 2 ¼ 4 Â 10 −10 . The same approach was followed by Lerch et al [66] with the model GEM-L2 [64], as correctly recognized by Ciufolini [7, p. 1713] himself.…”

confidence: 99%