AS THE COMPLEXITY of ICs increases and as devices approach submicron dimensions, more accurate models are required to relate transistor electrical characteristics to physical parameters. Examples of recent modeling efforts include a host of two-and three-dimensional calculations''2'3, modeling of heavy doping effects4, and scaling passive devices'. As monolithic transistors continue to operate at lower currents, with higher junctionperimeter-to-area ratios, and with higher electric fields, the existing models…
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