2020
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Abstract: Purpose: Spot-scanning proton arc therapy (SPAT) is an emerging modality to improve plan conformality and delivery efficiency. A greedy and heuristic method is proposed in the existing SPAT algorithm to select energy layers and sequence energy switching with gantry rotation, which does not promise optimality in either dosimetry or efficiency. We aim to develop a method to solve the energy layer switching and dosimetry optimization problems in an integrated framework for SPAT. Methods: In an integrated approach… Show more

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“…This allows greater flexibility in positioning high dose regions along the beam path and the potential for a much shorter BDT (15). Ding et al (196) have shown that good conformity and the possibility of a lower integral dose could be achieved with SParc however, treatment plans must be optimized for robustness and efficiency (194,197,198). Significant savings in BDT were reported (191) with continuous arc delivery however this is not yet clinically possible with current technology, due to complexities with gantry rotation and long ELSTs.…”
Section: Arc Therapymentioning
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“…This allows greater flexibility in positioning high dose regions along the beam path and the potential for a much shorter BDT (15). Ding et al (196) have shown that good conformity and the possibility of a lower integral dose could be achieved with SParc however, treatment plans must be optimized for robustness and efficiency (194,197,198). Significant savings in BDT were reported (191) with continuous arc delivery however this is not yet clinically possible with current technology, due to complexities with gantry rotation and long ELSTs.…”
Section: Arc Therapymentioning
“…This should be complemented by an improvement in treatment calculation time, since the current status of the SPArc dose calculation algorithm, with over 2 h per patient ( 70 ), would hinder its incorporation into a clinical workflow. While recent developments in the SPArc dose optimization algorithm ( 83 ) have reported some advances, including a ~50% reduction in estimated irradiation time, a recent study ( 84 ) has identified several inherent weaknesses in the SPArc algorithm and proposed an alternative approach which can possibly reduce planning time by up to a factor of 10.…”
Section: Mechanics: the Advantages And Limits Of Arcs And Gantry-lessmentioning
“…This allows greater flexibility in positioning high dose regions along the beam path and the potential for a much shorter BDT [14]. Ding et al [165] have shown that good conformity and the possibility of a lower integral dose could be achieved with SParc however, treatment plans must be optimised for robustness and efficiency [163,166]. Significant savings in BDT were reported [160] with continuous arc delivery however this is not yet possible with current technology, due to complexities with gantry rotation and long ELSTs.…”
Section: Arc Therapymentioning