volume 29, issue 10, P1319-1330 1996
DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(96)00026-7
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Abstract: We developed a dynamic model of the upper extremity to simulate forearm and wrist movements. The model is based on the skeletal structure of the arm and is capable of elbow flexion/extension, forearm pronosupination, and wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation movements. Movements are produced by activation of a Hill-type model of muscle, and limits on joint motion are imposed by passive moments modeled after experimental results. We investigated the muscle output force sensitivity, as well as wrist…

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